Perhaps no other human ailment has been impelled by so much of research in the contemporary times as Heart failure has been recently. Paradoxically however, Heart failure had also been one of the most neglected research subject, especially in the last century. It is only in the present millennium that rapid scientific breakthroughs have yielded wonderful therapies for this refractory disease. Deliberate bloodletting and leeches were utilized for Heart failure treatment for centuries before the era of modern medicine. In the early 20th century, Heart failure was treated with Southey’s tubes, which were sharp 14-gauge needles about 3″ long, with perforations on the sides, inserted into swollen legs, thus draining the excess fluid out of the body. In the decades before the 1980s, the only available therapies for heart failure were bed rest, inactivity and fluid restriction. The pharmacological treatment modalities were digitalis (William Withering had discovered Foxglove digitalis in1785) and drugs promoting enhanced urine formation.
Suddenly, the world has changed upside down. It is like before and after an apocalypse. The watershed. Never before and never again something of this magnitude would ever effect human life. Those of us who would be fortunate to see the after years of this colossal, monumental occurrence would have numerous anecdotal stories to share with the future generations.
On March 11th 2020 World Health Organization has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic. A pandemic is a disease which spreads around the world beyond expectations in vast majority of people. A pandemic is thus, actually a global endemic. Covid- 19 has been perhaps one of the most infective disease known with a high mortality rate. Though it’s mortality is less than other strains of Corona virus linked diseases such as SARS and MERS, but the shear spread of Covid- 19 is much more extensive and far-flung.
However there is a clear demographic distinctiveness of the disease and it is seen that children under the age of 10 years are seldom affected. In fact less than 1 % of the total affected patients were children of less than 10 years age group. On the other hand elderly people who are especially older than 80 years old have a very high infectivity and mortality rate.